Typical insecticide product development cascade (e.g. for indoor residual spraying, mosquito nets, etc)
For insecticide products, Phase 1 (laboratory studies) will be required for all new products where diagnostic concentrations, efficacy and residual activity, or activity against insecticide resistant species or strains are unknown. These studies will be done normally in the LSHTM laboratories in London. Bioassay tests against insecticide resistant strains, or when specialist WHO tunnel tests are required, will be outsourced to the LSHTM/Pamverc field sites in Benin and Tanzania. In instances where data from Phase 1 look promising, the next stage will be to perform Phase 2 studies, followed by Phase 3. Phase 2 and 3 experiments will not be done in the LSHTM laboratories, but will be outsourced and subcontracted to LSHTM field sites and collaborators in locations such as West and East Africa through the Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium (www.pamverc.org) and at the Ifakara Health Institute, icipe in Kenya and the MRC Laboratories in The Gambia.